Real knowledge is actual knowledge of a subject, as opposed to word association and stock clue knowledge, "quizbowl knowledge". Real knowledge implies a higher degree of conceptual knowledge that may also be applicable in tasks such as writing research papers, laboratory work, and critical analysis. Due to the nature of buzzer competition, real knowledge cannot truly be tested under the auspices of good quizbowl. Thus is the case that especially at higher levels of play, successful players have real knowledge as opposed to just memorizing many facts. Taking classes in school is often how real knowledge is obtained, although there are notable exceptions to this. Question writers who have a lack of real knowledge on a subject tend to use inappropriate terminology and constructions, a term that is known as "Quizbowlese".