Independent Buzzer Association
The Independent Buzzer Association (IBA) was the main challenge to College Bowl in the pre-ACF era. The IBA published Buzzer magazine and organized the US Open and the All-American Invitational. The IBA was led by David Levinson, the Editor of Buzzer, and Tom Waters as well as W. Albert Whited. The IBA consisted chiefly of southern teams led by Georgia Tech however Princeton, NYU, Penn, and Chicago contributed greatly to the northern circuit. The IBA fell apart shortly before the formation of the ACF with many leading IBA members taking places in the ACF.